Mango Cultivation, Profit & Yield per acre

India takes pride in cultivating over 1500 Varieties of mangoes of which 1000 of them are commercially grown. Mango is known as the king of fruits in India and is also the national fruit. Among fruit cultivation, mango takes nearly 50% of the land holdings in india. The fruits are exported worldwide today and farmers are getting more profit with increased technology, better growing practices and market world wide.

Organic Mangoes are becoming more common and valued among customers in India and abroad. The yield, though moderate, with right techniques, costs can be reduced and profits are considerably higher. For higher yield, farmers are practicing high density mango farming where 100 mango saplings are planted in a single acre as opposed to 40 in traditional farming. While traditional farming techniques with little to no maintenance can get around 2-3 tonnes per acre, high density farming can give 9-10 tonnes per acre .

Profit also depends on the variety of mangoes. While some mangoes are known to get up to 200 Rs per Kg, others merely scrape up 20 rs Per KG even during the peak season. Mangoes for fruit consumption are generally priced a bit higher than those used for juice,  pickled or  packed food varieties. 

The total export of mangoes is over 116287 Metric tonnes in 2018-19. its been on the decline since 2016-17 when it was at its peak at near 184023 Metric tonnes.the decline in the export is due to various reasons, some including restrictions of indian mangoes in the UK and also the UAE. While the total export of mangoes has been in decline, the value of the product itself has been on the rise in india. Indian mangoes are still preferred for sliced and dried and for mango pulp.

Fresh mangoes are the most profitable and gets the most value. Unfortunately, Fresh mangoes are available only during seasons and this limits farmers from selling their produce at a higher rate. Many farmers usually flood the market with their produce at the same time. 

Pulp is the second most profitable form of mangoes sold. These usually does not gain a lot of profit for farmers as the companies usually buy from farmers at a lower rate. Dried and sliced mangoes usually sell for a lot lesser. 

For exact figures on exports of mangoes from india Please refer https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1562530 http://agriexchange.apeda.gov.in/product_profile/exp_f_india.aspx?categorycode=0204

Most of indian Mangoes are exported to the UAE and UK. The Middle East currently tops as the best consumer of indian mangoes. 

Mango Cultivation Methods

Mango cultivation in India for years have been going on in a particular manner. Locations were given preferences. For instance , Banganappalli was cultivated in Andhra. The Kesar was from Gujarat , Chaunsa from Bihar and every variety had a location where it was good. The cultivation was also simple. 40-60 Mango trees in an acre. Trees would yield around 2.5 to 3 tonnes of fruits per year. Fertigation was minimal. Irrigation too was simple and not too intensive. 

Traditional Mango cultivation was simplistic. You plant saplings, USually grafted. Take care of it for 2 years with regular irrigation and pest control. The third year is usually the first year of flowering. Flowers are usually cut off to prevent fruiting and enhance foliage. The fourth year is usually the first fruiting year. Over the next 10 years, fruiting increases every year, usually doubling every year starting from a nominal 10 KG the first year (Fourth year after planting). The 10th year of the tree should yield around 100 -250 KG of fruits per tree. By the 20th year a good tree should yield around 1000 fruits minimum, increasing every year by 5-8%. The yield of a mango tree depends on various factors including the suitability of climatic conditions for the plant, Irrigation, Fertigation and pest management. Rainfall also plays a major part in the yield. If the fruiting of a plant is to coincide with the rainy season, chances are that you will not be able to harvest good fruits. Mango harvesting should be done before rains as rains bring in a variety of pests and it becomes harder to manage.

Pros and cons of Traditional Mango Cultivation

ProsCons
Minimal MaintenanceSlower Return on investment
Consistent incomeLesser return compared to High density plantation
Lesser LaborHarder to harvest as trees are huge after 10 years
 Chances of alternate year fruiting after 10 years.

While the traditional mango harvesting methods are profitable, its not fully commercialised. The land is not utilized fully and there is a lot of empty space between trees the first 10 years before the tree develops to full growth. Also the yield is only 2.5-3 Tonnes per year, which can be increased.

High Density Mango Cultivation

While Traditional mango cultivation adopts 45-60 plants per acre, The high density cultivation allows up to 200 plants per acre. This automatically increases the yield per tree for the first 10 years of harvest. While the traditional method generates 3 tonnes, the High density Mango cultivation doubles the yield to approximately 5 to 6 tonnes per year. 

High density mango plantation is not dependent on the variety of mangoes. With that said, Farmers should concentrate on high yielding varieties and varieties which have a good market value for high density plantation. Kesar, Alphonso, Banganappalli and Malliga are some of the most valued fruits with good return on investment. Imam Pasand is a low yield variety with high cost and can be considered for high density plantation. Low cost mangoes which generally go for pulp and pickles should be avoided. Totapuri is a high yield variety but the cost for the variety is low in the market. 

High Density mango cultivation comes with its own caveats. Maintenance is higher than the traditional farming methods. Drip irrigation, proper field maintenance and pest management costs are to be considered. Pruning the mango trees 3-4 times a year is required to maintain proper shape of the plant. 

A complete , detailed cost analysis of High density mango plantation vs Traditional mango plantation was studies by the indian association of hill farming and the details of the same are available on http://www.kiran.nic.in/pdf/IJHF/special_Issue_2018/14%20Revised.pdf. The total cost involved in maintaining the High density plantation is double that of traditional mango plantation. But when it comes to Yield, it is double too. With one acre of land, You can expect to spend 103940 Rs for the first 4 years of gestation period in High density plantation while th cost of Maintaining a traditional farm is 63345 Rs only. When it comes to returns, you can get 2-3 tonnes per acre on a traditional farm while you can expect 6 tonnes in High density . In monetary terms, you are looking at 50,000 Rs in returns on a traditional farm while the returns on the High density farm is 150,000 on the 5th year per acre. 

Clearly, high density plantations are more profitable than Traditional mango plantation , if done right and maintained properly.

We urge you to look thorough the research on http://www.kiran.nic.in/pdf/IJHF/special_Issue_2018/14%20Revised.pdf before you venture into high density planatation. Preparation and planning is always important when it comes to long term agricultural ventures. Knowing what works and what doesn’t will determine your ratio of success drastically.

Sum it all up

Ultra High density Mango Plantation

While the Traditional mango plantation spaced each tree at a 10 meter distance, the High density placed it in 5 meter distance. The Ultra high density model  placed each tree in 2 meter distance with 3 meters between rows. This enabled one acre to accommodate as many as 700 trees. With higher number of trees came higher yield. The project, first conducted by Jain irrigation in udumalpet saw a 10 Tonne yield in the tenth year, 5 times more yield than traditional mango cultivation and twice as much as high density mango plantations.

Ultra high density mango plantations has its own set of problems. The plants spaced so close requires attention and constant pruning or else the branches of one tree could entangle into others and eventually compete for air , sunlight and space. If left unattended, many of the trees will eventually die and while its still alive, the yield would amount to nothing. The roots are closely placed and fight for nutrients and water all the time, so Drip irrigation facilities and constant nutrient application is mandatory. Weeding the plant and keeping the area free from pests are more important than ever as the trees are so close and spreading a disease becomes easier.

Maintaining an Ultra high density Mango plantation would cost more than ultra high density plantations. The initial investment on drip pipes and water facilities is mandatory. Maintenance cost involves labour for spraying pesticides and application of nutrients from time to time. Labour for pruning the trees 4-5 times a year is also mandatory. With higher input costs, farmers would expect a higher yield and better price for their produce. With that said, Ultra high density plantations for mangoes focus only on 2 varieties so far. Imam pasand and Alphonso are 2 varieties which get a good profit in the market. 

Ultra high density mango plantation is effective way of increasing yield in a small area of land but requires proper and timely maintenance, fertigation and irrigation. The skill to prune the trees correctly is important. Fertigation after pruning and fruiting is crucial for plant growth and fruit development. The costs involved is slightly higher with UHDP but the returns are twice as that of High density plantation and the fruit quality and of the same size.

The project, unnati by Jain Agro provides training for Ultra high density plantation of mangoes and arranges buy back programs for mango cultivators. They also arrange for soil testing and mango saplings for farmers who intend to implement the Ultra high density Mango plantation. You can see more details on the Jain agro website (https://www.jainfarmfresh.com/unnati/).

Difference between High Density, Traditional and UHDP – Ultra high density Mango plantation 

 TraditionalHigh DensityUHDP
Yield2.5 Tonnes /Acre5 tonnes /acre10 tonnes per acre
MAintenanceModerateSlightly higherHigh
Plant per acre60200700
Harvesting CostHighLowLow
Fruit QualityLowModerate / HighHigh
Learning CurveLowHighHigh
Return on investmentLowHighVery high

Clearly Ultra high density mango plantation, though requires high maintenance and training, is more profitable . Commercially, high density mango plantation helps farmers to maintain a farm single handedly or with minimal labour as long as they are skilled. Fertigation, irrigation can be automated or done with minimal labour. Pruning of 600 trees takes 3-4 days for a single skilled labourer. Picking of fruits can be done by anyone without any tools, thereby maintaining the quality of the fruits and minimal labour. 

Refer :
http://agricoop.nic.in/sites/default/files/Mango%20Cultivation%20%281%29.pdf https://www.nabard.org/demo/auth/writereaddata/File/Economics%20of%20Mango%20Cultivation.pdf

Mango Disease

Powdery Mildew : One of the biggest disease in mangoes is the Powdery mildew. Symptoms include whyte powdery fungal growth on leaves and stalks. Often times, the fungus will affect flowering and fruit setting. The problem is alleviated with rains, mist and cold weather and enables them to spread to other trees.

Ref : http://nhb.gov.in/PDFViwer.aspx?enc=3ZOO8K5CzcdC/Yq6HcdIxO5TUychge00mPkJ3R+3p54=

Indian states and Mango Cultivation

Mango Varieties grown in India

Its hard to pick a winner from 1500 contestants when each of them has something unique in them. Alphonso may be the king of mangoes but mallika is equally worthy of the position. Kesar has a splendid, significant smell,taste and color. Dasheri is Sweeter than honey and the list could just go on and on. But, of course we are limited by space and frankly many wouldn’t have the opportunity to taste all of them.

For instance, the Kalapadi variety of Mangoes which are common in kerala is not listed here, though it has a distinct texture, always sweet and an excellent fruit for the table variety (not for Juice or pickles). There are 100’s of varieties which are distinctive to certain regions and are not commercial. They are not exported and usually not even sent from one state to another. This list is mostly those varieties which are common in India and considered Commercial.

  1. Alphonso
    The Alphonso is the king of mangoes. Its taste, texture and smell is distinctive and liked by all. The mango is cultivated in the western region of india and has become one of the best mangoes liked worldwide. Alphonso is also one of the most exported mangoes. While alphonso is cultivated almost all over india, the ones cultivated in wester india have a distinctive taste and smell which makes it the most desired mango in the world
  2. Kesar
    Kesar is the mango of gujarat. Cultivated all over gujarat, the best kesar comes from the saurashtra region of gujarat. The kesar is known for its distinctive smell Which resembles that of the saffron (From which its name derives) and its color which is deep orange. The fruits are free from fiber and sweet, Not tangy.
  3. Dasheri
    The Dasheri mangoes are known for its sweetness and fragrance. Its distinctive to north india while its cultivated all over india today. The dasheri Mother plant still exists and fruits 1 every 2 years. Though the dasheri fruits in the mother plant is smaller, the taste and fragrance of this fruit is unparalleled.
  4. Himsagar
    The himsagar mangoes are fiber less and medium sized mangoes each weight between 250 and 300 grams. The mangoes are Yellow or light orange inside when ripe. Himsagar mangoes is native to West bengal and orissa . Himsagar is also cultivated in Bangladesh.
  5. Chaunsa / Chausa
    Chaunsa is a variety which is native to pakistan. In india its cultivated in Uttar pradesh and Bihar. Chaunsa Comes in 3 varieties. The white chaunsa is the most desired mango. The other varieties are honey chaunsa and Sweet Chaunsa.
  6. Badami
    Badami is a native to the southern state Karnataka. Its also known as the Alphonso of karnataka. It has a pale skin and the flesh is Yellow orange. Its almost fiberless. It has a medium to small sized stone and the flesh is Juicy.
  7. Safeda
    Safeda is known by many names. Many people know it as banganapalle as its cultivated around the village Banganapalle in Andhra pradesh. They are also known as Benishan and  Badam in various parts of india. The Safeda cultivated in Banganapalle , andhra pradesh is known for its unique taste and texture.
  8. Bombay Green
    The Bombay green originated in india but made popular after it was cultivated in Jamaica. The Bombay green is usually Green even when ripe and has a touch of red in some mangoes. The Flesh is fiberless and juicy. The flavour of the mango is often termed spicy. There have been many hybrids which have a small parentage of the bombay green.
  9. Langra
    The Langra is native to Banaras or varanasi in india . Its also cultivated in pakistan and Bangladesh. Its cultivated at the end of July and has a greenish touch when ripe. Its Yellow orange inside when ripe and is fleshy and juicy. Of late, Langra has seen value in the international market as its suitable for Juicing and Canning.
  10. Totapuri
    The Totapuri is used mainly for pickling and pulp. The mangoes are less sweeter than other table varieties of mangoes when ripe. Its a great mango for pickles and canning. It is slightly tangy . The fruits are usually large and the flesh is yellow when ripe. The variety is a high yielding variety. The variety gets its name from its shape and loosely translates to parrots nose in many languages. Kili mooku as its known in kerala literally means parrots nose.
  11. Neelam
    The neelam mangoes are known for its taste and floral smell. Its one of the widely cultivated mango varieties all over india but is prominent in Andhra, Karnataka and Tamil nadu. It has an elongated shape with pointed tip. When ripe, the skin is yellow with no blush.These fruits are green when mature and should be plucked when mature. They ripen naturally in room temperature and turns yellow. The odor may be overpowering for some who are new to this mango.
  12. Raspuri
    The raspuri mango means juicy and it does give justice to its name. The raspuri mango is known to be sweet and juicy if harvested during the right time. The flesh is fiberless and very juicy. In karnataka, the Raspuri mango is preferred to even the alphonso and other exotic mangoes. The raspuri is native to karnataka.
  13. Mulgoa / Mulgoba
    The mulgoa is native to Tamilnadu Speciaially , the krishnagiri, Salem and Dharmapuri areas. The mulgoa is also cultivated in other states in the south including KErala, andhra and Karnataka. The Mulgoa fruits are yellow when ripe with a tinge of red. The fruits are spicy, Sweet and has a distinct odor.  The trees are very huge and grows vigorously.Strains of this variety is seen on over 50 other varieties of mangoes.
  14. Lakshmanbhog
    The lakshmanbhog variety of mangoes are cultivated in west bengal and is one of the few selected mangoes for export to the USA. 
  15. Amrapali
    The Amrapali mangoes are the hybrid of Neemal and Dusheri. Its known for its deep orange red flesh. The fruit has lesser shelf life than most other commercial varieties. The three is of the dwarf variety and the yield is approximately 16 tonnes per hectare. 
  16. Imam Pasand
    Imam Pasand Also known as humayun pasand himampasand and similar other names is probably not the best looking fruit. At 800 Grams per fruit, Imam pasand is big but not well shaped. The skin is thin and this creates problems when transporting. Its not one of the well known varieties of mangoes because its hard to transport it. But Imam pasand was once known as the king of mangoes. It has a distinctive taste and the after taste is more like Lime and coconut. Many mango lovers will know how the after taste of a mango can be repulsive, but the imam pasand will leave your mouth wanting for more. The imam pasand is cultivated in tamil nadu , karnataka and andhra though its thought that the mango originated from Kerala.
  17. Fazil
    The FAzil mango is a large fruit and a late maturing mango. The Mangoes usually are harvested after most other mangoes. The fruit could weigh up to a kilo but is not used for table purpose. The Fazil is known for making jams and pickles . The fazil mangoes are cultivated in West bengal and bangladesh.
  18. Mankurad
    The mankurad is a native to goa and loosely translates to Poor looking. Even with its poor looks, the Mankurad is often compared to the Alphonso. This fruit is rarely seen outside of Goa as its demands are high. The fruits are fleshy and juicy.
  19. Paheri / Pairi
    The pairi is an early season mangoes which hit the market before other mangoe. The mangoes weigh between 250 and 400 grams. 
  20. Mallika
    The mallika mango is a hybrid of Neelam and Dussheri. The mallika has a distinctive flavour and odor. They are floral in Scent and grow up to 500 Grams. The fruits are usually not prone to pest attacks. The flesh is free from fiber and taste extremely sweet. The flesh is deep orange in color. The skin is yellow when ripe and dark green when mature. They leave an after taste of Honey, Melon and Lime. They are extremely sweet.
  21. Gulab Khaas
    The gulab khas gets its name from the deep red color of the mango. It is sweet and is used in desserts. Its rosy flavour and smell is distinct.
  22. Rumani
    The Rumani mangoes are also known as the Apple mangoes or the ice cream mangoes. They are native to andhra and karnataka. 
  23. Muvandan
    The muvandan mangoes are native to kerala . Its a medium -small mangoes which is tangy with light fiber. The flesh are yellow when ripe and the taste is a bit tangy. They are usually consumed semi ripe or fully ripe. Its an excellent variety for pickles. The mango is also an off season mangoes which fruits twice a year.

Places in india that has the Best mangoes

  1. Ratnagiri Maharashtra
  2. Junagadh , Gujarat
  3. Kakori, Lucknow UP
  4. Malihabad, UP
  5. Murshidabad, Westbengal
  6. Hardoi , UP
  7. VAranasi, UP
  8. Salem, Tamil Nadu
  9. Malda , West Bengal
  10. Mankurad, Goa
  11. Muthalamada, Kerala
  12. Trichy Tamil Nadu
  13. Kurnool , Andhra Pradesh
  14. Dharmapuri Tamil Nadu
  15. Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu
  16. Ganeshgule, Maharashtra
  17. Talawade, Maharashtra
  18. Dahanu, Maharashtra
  19. Lonavala, Maharashtra
  20. Hoshiarpur, Punjab
  21. Vapi, Gujarat
  22. Garhmukteshwar, Uttar Pradesh
  23.  Mysore, Karnataka
  24. Gir, Gujarat
  25. Devgad , Maharashtra
  26. Hoogly Westbengal
  27. Murshidabad West bengal
  28. Nadia West bengal
  29. Banaras

Ref : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mango_cultivars

Mango Yield Per Tree, Per Acre and Profit

The Yield of a mango tree depends on the age of the tree itself. The prime age of the tree is the peak yield period of the tree itself. the first 5 years of a mango tree’s life is a Child state, and there is no yield in trees unless they are grafted or produced by air layering. This yield should be avoided for better growth of the plant itself and cannot be considered as a production plant. The second stage is the adolescent stage where the age of the plant is between 5 and 15. this stage is when plants start producing fruits and they are gradually growing. the growth could be anywhere between 5 to 10 feet every year and they grow branches and fruits. Yet, this is not the peak period for the trees. The peak period comes when it’s nearly 15 years age and to 25 years age. This age is prime for mango trees. the production is at its highest at approximately 1 to 3 tonnes per tree. assuming that you have a normal plantation of mango with 40 Trees per acre, you are looking at a yield of 40 tonnes of mangoes per acre. with 40 tonnes, the assumed revenue would be around 20Lakh rupees per acre in the 15th to 20th year with an average price of 50 rupees per kilo.

While this may seem like an overkill, this is actually true for all mango plantations. the base price for mangoes does not go below 20 rupees per kilo and during the season, the prices go as high as 150. With an average of 50 rupees per kilo, chances are you will always make around 20 Lakh per acre.

YearPer Tree Yield (Number of fruits)Per Tree Yield (KG)Per Acre Yield (KG)Per Acre Gross Revenue (Rs)
1
2
3
4
5
61002080040000
715030120060000
820040160080000
9300602400120000
10400803200160000
115001004000200000
126001204800240000
137001405600280000
148501706800340000
1510002008000400000

ref : https://agricoop.nic.in/sites/default/files/Mango%20Cultivation%20%281%29.pdf

Note that this is the gross revenue and not the net amount. There are other factors which influence profits of mango farming which includes the right application of pesticides and fertilizers and alternating fruiting seasons .