How to Profit with Floriculture & Flower cultivation india

The Pandemic in 2020 has created a massive change in all industries including agriculture. More people have started farming at home and home garden and backyard gardeingin is thriving. People are cultivating their own food in the little land they can. Some are cultivating only one or two plants like the chilli or kadi patha or curry leaves. Others have taken it to the next level by cultivating more like tomatoes and brinjals at home. For people who have a bit more space, they have grown a variety of plants including elephant yam, pumpkins and bottle gourds.

But one industry which is not really happy about the pandemic and is going in a major loss is the floriculture industry. People have cancelled weddings and the weddings that are taking place is not done with all the pomp and show which was earlier common. Today there are 100 or even lesser people at a wedding gathering. The food is simple and the decorations are non existant. Flowers are hard to get and is almost always avoided but to the basic necessities.

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With lack of demand, excess in produce, no transportation facilities, and zero exports, Most flower farmers are simply not cutting it. Profits aside, they cant make enough to maintain their farm.

India is probably not the best country when it comes to flower exports. It’s not even in the top 15 lists of exporters in flowers. Most of the flowers grown in India are used in India and sold in the local market. Most flowers grown in India are specific to the region. for instance, crossandra is grown mostly in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. There is no market for the flower in most other states. Roses are grown all over India and are one of the few flowers which has a constant, steady demand. Other flowers include carnation, jasmine, and marigold, which are either used for religious functions or marriages. Some flowers like hibiscus have medicinal values and are used in ayurvedic preparations.

Cultivation methods to Profit from Flower Cultivation

Open Farming is good. but there are a few caveats to open field farming. High maintenance, Labor and possibility of pests and other problems related to weather. A controlled environment could be a great way to increase profits in flower cultivation. The degree of control will determine the investment for your project. There are various options to creating a controlled environment. To begin with, You could have a simple green house , but even creating a green house with drip irrigation system could cost you anywhere between 28 Lakh to 40 Lakh Rupees. This is a huge investment and adding up some other gadgets and accessories could take the costing to another 10 Lakh rupees extra. Addition of moisture and heat control, Optional sprinklers etc costs can be covered with the extra 10 Lakh rupees.

Considering the Huge investment of an average of 35 Lakh rupees for a farmer is huge. Albeit that the structure will remain for 10 years with proper maintenance and even more sometimes, the initial investment is a burden to most farmers. It is important to cover the cost as soon as possible. This will require that you choose the right plant, Get the right customer, market the product and sell the produce at a high price when ready. While most businesses will be able to cover the cost of investment in 3-5 years, that luxury is not afforded to most farmers. The quicker the returns the better it is.

Before we delve into the details of profiting, lets understand why open field farming is not as profitable as a closed and contained environment for floriculture.

Problems with Open farming Flower Cultivation

Let me explain. Open farming is good for a lot of crops. There are crops which are only possible in open farms commercially. For instance, Mangoes, Papaya and large tree’s is not suitable for controlled environment. these crops are not feasible on a green house and very impractical. There are other crops like Field crops. Rice, wheat, jowar and more which is only feasible on open farms. These crops too are not a good option for Closed, controlled environment.

But flowers … They are completely different. they are prone to pests. A wide range of pests affects flowers on an open farm, especially when cultivated commercially on large scale. Imagine an open farm flower cultivation affected by a pest or disease. it’s hard to control the pest in most cases. the chance of the pest spreading is high and the application of pesticides is usually the only option, and even then, in most cases, affects the quality of the flowers and plants themselves.

Then there is the question of quality. Open farms are prone to changes in weather. Harsh sunlight is not exactly the best thing to happen for young flowers. The chances of blisters, wilt, and small size of the flower are all a possibility. this directly affects the price of the flower and thus the income. Keeping the flowers in a controlled environment ensures that the flowers are as safe as you can possibly keep. No harsh sunlight, Perfect temperature, and moisture conditions ensure that the flowers are of the best quality for sale.

Then there is a problem of poor yield, which is attributed to weather conditions in an open farm but also related to nutrient availability. While most open field farmers do apply an extensive amount of nutrients to their plants, Most of them seep into the soil, with only a small percentage directly used by the plant. The loss of nutrients is not only a loss in income but the results are not as expected. Most plants are not able to absorb the nutrients as efficiently as they should, and this results in poor quality flowers and sometimes poor yield too.

But it is possible to make a good profit from open field flower cultivation too. If you do a bit of research, Lose flowers have a good market, and flowers which are seasonal and suitable to your area can be cultivated without huge infrastructural investments. Certain areas like Kashmir, Ooty, Kodaikanal, and locations with moderately cooler weather can be suitable for rose cultivation without any infrastructural investments. Tuberose and many other flowers too, which are highly priced in the market can be cultivated in open fields in these areas. Elsewhere, you can focus on open field flower cultivation targeted to potpourri or dry flowers. The dry flower market has been increasing steadily over the years. Roses, Chrysanthemums, and a range of fragrant flowers can be used. flowers which add colors and even pines are added to potpourri which gives it a distinctive look apart from the fragrance.

Green house for Flower cultivation in India

Green house For Rose Plantation and most of flower cultivation, specially for Cut flowers is essential. While Rose plants cultivated in ope field has the capacity of 3.75 lakh stems per year to 5 Lakh stems per year, cultivation in greenhouse can yield 4.75 Lakh to 8 Lakh per acre every year. You could say its nearly double in quantity and whets even better is the fact that the roses cultivated in Greenhouses were of better quality and perfect for export. With better quality also came better prices and this, in turn, resulted in more profit.

So Calculating the profit of open field vs Greenhouse for rose cultivation would be as below.

Year One

Open FieldGreenhouse
Minimum investment for Cultivation2000003500000
Minimum Yield Per acre375000475000
Cost Per Stem3.5 Rs10 Rs
Average Turnover13125004750000
Profit For First Year11250001250000

Year Two

Open FieldGreenhouse
Minimum investment for Cultivation200000500000
Minimum Yield Per acre375000475000
Cost Per Stem3.5 Rs10 Rs
Average Turnover13125004750000
Profit For First Year11250004250000

Yes the income on the greenhouse looks really interesting, tempting even, but remember that it comes with a cost. Even though Rose cultivation is done in a closed controlled environment in a green house, its not possible to cultivate roses just about anywhere. The right temperature and no huge dfifernce in day and night temperature is one thing which makes rose cultivating a success or failure. Many areas like Ooty and kodaikanal seem like excellent options but night temperatures are too low in these areas, making rose cultivation harder.

Common Flowers grown in Greenhouses

To be continued….